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Megachile texana Cresson, 1878


Scientific Name: Megachile texana Cresson, 1878

Common Name: Texas Leafcutter Bee


Megachile texana Cresson, 1878: 125 [♂, not ♀].

     Lectotype ♂, designated by Cresson (1916: 132). USA, Texas, by Belfrage [ANSP no. 2442].

Megachile generosa Cresson, 1878: 125 [♀]. Synonymy by Mitchell (1935: 32).

     Lectotype ♀, designated by Cresson (1916: 119). USA, Georgia, by Morrison [ANSP no. 2443].

*Megachile vernonensis Cockerell, 1912: 354 [♂, ♀]. Synonymy by Mitchell (1935: 32).

     Holotype ♂. CANADA, British Columbia, Vernon, 7 July 1902, by Miss Ricardo [BMHN].


Taxonomic notes: Cresson (1878: 126) indicated that his Megachile generosa Cresson, 1878 was closely allied to M. texana Cresson, 1878, but differened in being less robust, with the punctures on the mesothorax being sparser, and the scopal hairs of sterum 5 being almost all pale, not black as described for M. texana (Cresson: 1878: 125). Mitchell (1935: 32) indicated that the ♂ lectotype and ♀ paralectotype[s] of M. texana were not correctly associated; the ♂ being associated with the ♀ of M. generosa, and the ♀ being a distinct species, M. paratexana Mitchell, 1930 [= Megachile comata Cresson, 1872]. Mitchell (1935: 32) selected M. texana as the valid name based on that name preceding M. generosa in Cresson (1878).

Cockerell (1906: 166) indicated that M. pruinosa Friese, 1903 was a preoccupied name, but stated that H. Friese felt that M. pruinosa Pérez, 1897 was a synony of M. argentata (Fabricius, 1793) [= Anthidium florentinum Fabricius, 1775], though Ghisbain et al. (2023: 65) considered it nomen dubium, despite having examined the type and placing it in the subgenus Eutricharaea Thomson, 1872. Cockerell (1913: 536) also indicated that M. pruinosa Friese was a synonym of M. cleomis Cockerell, 1900 (as M. generosa cleomis), which was supported by Mitchell (1935: 36, as a junior synonym of M. texana var. cleomis Cockerell, 1900). Mitchell (1962: 118) did not recognize subspecies of M. texana, and M. pruinosa Friese was not included as a synonym of M texana as M. cleomis was not considered a species of the eastern United States (see Mitchell 1935: 37, though with some eastern records); Michener (1951: 1172) subsequently recognized M. cleomis as a valid species, with M. pruinosa Friese listed as a synonym, though recorded from QC west to BC in Canada, with records from eastern states as well. Hurd (1979: 2054) synonymized both M. cleomis and M. pruinosa Friese under M. texana, which was supported by Bzdyk (2012: 56), but the former is recognized here, with the latter a junior synonym.

Cockerell (1912: 354) provided a description of both sexes of Megachile vernonensis Cockerell, 1912, though used the “♀” for both; the first sex described is the holotype ♂ of M. vernonensis; Michener (1951: 1172) recorded this as “♀” = ♂, but both sexes were described. Cockerell noted that M. vernonensis had affinities with M. cleomis and M. generosa Cresson but was smaller than both. It should be determined if M. vernonensis represents a synonym of M. cleomis due to its western type locality.

Mitchell (1937: 355) indicated that the ♀ of M. vernonensis was incorrectly associated, and represents a colour variant of M. wheeleri Mitchell, 1927 with the scopa black on both sternum 5 and 6, not just 6 as is more typical for M. wheeleri (Mitchell 1937: 356).

Bzdyk (2012: 56) incorrectly recorded the type material for M. texana and M. generosa as holotypes, though the type series contained seven and eight specimens, respectively.

DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN): BOLD:AAC1845

Distribution in Canada: Cockerell 1912 [BC, as M. vernonensis Cockerell, type locality]; Gibson 1913 [BC, as M. vernonensis Cockerell], 1914 [ON, as M. generosa Cresson], 1917 [AB, MB, as M. generosa Cresson]; Mitchell 1935 [BC, MB, ON, QC], 1962 [southern Canada]; Buckell 1950 [BC]; Pengelly 1953 [ON]; Sheffield et al. 2011 [BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC], 2014 [SK, MB]; Richards et al. 2011 [ON]; Bzdyk 2012 [BC, SK, MB, ON, QC]; Normandin et al. 2017 [QC]; Sheffield and Heron 2018 [BC]; Gibbs et al. 2023 [MB].



Cockerell TDA (1912) Canadian bees in the British Museum. The Canadian Entomologist 44(12): 354-358.

Cockerell TDA (1913) Descriptions and records of bees.—LII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8 11(66): 530-542.

Cresson ET (1878) Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 7: 61-136.

Friese H (1903) Neue Arten der Bienen gattung Megachile aus Amerika. Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 3(4): 246-248.

Mitchell TB (1935) A revision of the genus Megachile in the Nearctic region. Part II. Morphology of the male sternites and genital armature and the taxonomy of the subgenera Litomegachile, Neomegachile and Cressoniella. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 61(1): 1-44.

Mitchell TB (1936) A revision of the genus Megachile in the Nearctic region. Part V. Taxonomy of the subgenus Xeromegachile (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 62(4): 323-382.

Cockerell TDA (1906) New Rocky Mountain bees, and other notes. The Canadian Entomologist 38(5): 160-166.

Hurd PD (1979) Superfamily Apoidea. In: Krombein KV, Hurd Jr PD, Smith DR, Burks BD (Eds) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 2735 pp.

Mitchell TB (1962) Bees of the Eastern United States. Volume 2. North Carolina Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 152, Raleigh, 557 pp.

Normandin É, Vereecken NJ, Buddle CM, Fournier V (2017) Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings. PeerJ 5: e3051.

Richards MH, Rutgers-Kelly A, Gibbs J, Vickruck JL, Rehan SM, Sheffield CS (2011) Bee diversity in naturalizing patches of Carolinian grasslands in southern Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 143(3): 279-299.

Sheffield CS, Frier SD, Dumesh D (2014) The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) of the Prairies Ecozone, with comparisons to other grasslands of Canada. In: Giberson DJ, Cárcamo HA (Eds) Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 4): Biodiversity and Systematics Part 2. 4. Biological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 479 pp. [ISBN 978-0-9689321-7-9].

Gibbs J, Hanuschuk E, Miller R, Dubois M, Martini M, Robinson S, Nakagawa P, Sheffield CS, Onuferko T (2023) A checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Manitoba, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 155: E3.

Sheffield CS, Heron JM (2019) The bees of British Columbia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 115: 44-85.

Cresson ET (1916) The Cresson types of Hymenoptera. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 1: 1-141.

Gibson A (1914) The entomological record, 1913. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 44: 106-129.

Michener CD (1951) Family Megachilidae. In: Muesebeck CF, Krombein KV, Townes HK (Eds) Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico Synoptic Catalog. 2. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Monograph, Washington. Pp. 1136-1186.

Gibson A (1917) The entomological record, 1916. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 47: 137-171.

Buckell ER (1950) Record of bees from British Columbia: Megachilidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 46: 21-31.

Pengelly DH (1954) Alfalfa pollination in southern Ontario. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 84: 101-118.

Gibson A (1913) The entomological record, 1912. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 43:113-140.

Sheffield CS, Ratti C, Packer L, Griswold T (2011) Leafcutter and mason bees of the genus Megachile Latreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 18: 1-107.

Bzdyk EL (2012) A revision of the Megachile subgenus Litomegachile Mitchell with an illustrated key and description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Megachilini). ZooKeys 221: 31-61.

Ghisbain G, Rosa P, Bogusch P, Flaminio S, Le Divelec R, Dorchin A, Kasparek M, Kuhlmann M, Litman J, Mignot M, Müller A, Praz C, Radchenko VG, Rasmont P, Risch S, Roberts SPM, Smit J, Wood TJ, Michez D, Reverté (2023) The new annotated checklist of the wild bees of Europe (Hymenoptera: Anthophila). Zootaxa 5327(1): 1-147.

Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Polylectic
Wintering Stage: Mature Larva

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Not Available

Distribution: British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan
Ecozone: Mixwood Plains, Pacific Maritime, Prairie, Western Interior Basin

Distribution Map