Scientific Name: Lasioglossum birkmanni (Crawford, 1906)

Common Name: Birkmann s Sweat Bee


Halictus birkmanni Crawford 1906: 5 [♀]

     Syntype ♀. USA, Texas, Fedor, 24 March 1902, by G. Birkmann [NMNH: 12038]


Species Notes

The ♂‚ was described by Mitchell (1960) as Evylaeus macoupinensis. Crawford (1906) did not designate a holotype for this species, and unfortunately did not indicate how many specimens were in the type series; Gibbs et al. (2013) suggested it was plausible that the description was based on a single specimen though the specimen they examined (the only one available) was labelled as a paratype (in what appears to be Crawford’s handwriting). They deferred designating that specimen as a lectotype due to its poor condition and the possibility of additional specimens from the type series. The original description of L. birkmanni (Crawford 1906) indicate extensive yellow (“testaceous”) colouration on the legs, though individuals with brown legs occur east of the Mississippi River (these specimens have been misidentifed as L. macoupinense). Contributing to further misidentifications (Mitchell 1960; Knerer & Atwood 1964) was the fact that Cresson (1928) made an unfortunate lectotype designation (Gibbs et al. 2013). Gibbs et al. (2013) examined material from throughout most of the range, and noted evidence of a gradation between the pale and dark legged forms, with some specimens of both forms occurring at the same locality. 

The DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN) for this species is BOLD:AAC8293.



♀ body length: 4.8–6.3 mm; head length: 1.27–1.55 mm; head width: 1.35–1.65 mm; wing length: 3.9–4.8 mm

♂‚ body length: 4.2–5.5 mm; head length: 1.20–1.43 mm; head width: 1.24–1.48 mm; wing length: 3.3–4.1 mm



This species is polylectic (Moure and Hurd 1987), and nests in the ground (M. Deyrup, as cited in Gibbs et al. 2013). There are no published accounts of social level, but it is expected to be solitary based on its close relationship to other solitary species (Danforth et al. 2003; Gibbs et al. 2012).


Index of Area of Occupancy (IAO) in Canada (http://geocat.kew.org/): 128 km2



Crawford JC (1906) Some new species of Halictus. The Canadian Entomologist 38: 4–6. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent384-1

Cresson ET (1928) The types of Hymenoptera in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia other than those of Ezra T. Cresson. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 5: 1–90.

Danforth BN, Conway L, Ji S. (2003) Phylogeny of eusocial Lasioglossum reveals multiple losses of eusociality within a primitively eusocial clade of bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Systematic Biology 52: 23–36. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3651080

Gibbs J, Brady S, Kanda K, Danforth BN (2012) Phylogeny of halictine bees supports a shared origin of eusociality for Halictus and Lasioglossum (Apoidea: Anthophila: Halictidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65(3): 926–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.08.013

Knerer G, Atwood CE (1964) Further notes on the genus Evylaeus Robertson (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). The Canadian Entomologist 96(7): 957–962. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent96957-7

Mitchell TB (1960) Bees of the Eastern United States: Volume I. N.C. Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 141: 1–538.

Moure JS, Hurd PD Jr (1987) An Annotated Catalog of the Halictid Bees of the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. viii + 505.

Sociality: Presumed Solitary
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Polylectic
Wintering Stage: Mated Female

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Not Available

Distribution: Ontario, Quebec
Ecozone: Mixwood Plains

Distribution Map