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Halictus parallelus Say, 1837


Scientific Name: Halictus parallelus Say, 1837

Common Name: Parallel-striped Sweat Bee


Halictus parallelus Say, 1837: 397 [♀].

     Type ♀. USA, Indiana [lost, see Sandhouse 1941: 31].

Halictus occidentalis Cresson, 1872: 250 [♀, ♂]. Synonymy by Robertson (1918: 91).

     Lectotype ♀, designated by Cresson (1916: 108). USA, Texas, by Belfrage, Boll [ANSP no. 2117].


Taxonomic notes: In a discussion of Halictus rubicundus (Christ, 1791) in the UK, Smith (1855: 23) suggested that the North American species H. parallelus Say, 1837 was likely the same species; supporting this opinion, Smith (1853: 71) had previously considered H. lerouxii Lepeletier, 1841 a synonymy of H. parallelus, as had Dalla Torre (1896: 75) and Cockerell (1899b: 128). Smith (1857: 29) later stressed that H. parallelus was the larger North American version of H. rubicundus. Blüthgen (1925: 390) later synonymized H. lerouxii under H. rubicundus (Christ, 1791), confirming it as a Holarctic species. However, the error of confusing H. parallelus with H. rubicundus by Smith (1853, 1855) is likely why older accouts of H. parallelus from Nova Scotia (Smith 1853, Walker 1871) are likely referring to H. rubicundus.

Rayment (1930) also proposed the name Halictus occidentalis Rayment, 1930 (=Homalictus donatus (Cockerell, 1912)) for an Australian species (see Cockerell 1933: 317).

DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN): BOLD:AAE3028

Biology: An early study of nest structure and nesting biology was by Packard (1868: 602) who indicated a nest depth of 6-12 inches, described the immature stages, and described two broods. Packard (1897) later provided a more detailed description of the immature stages. Additional studies include Hungerford and Williams (1912: 255).

Packard (1869: 142) and Graenicher (1903: 153) reported Nomada imbricata from the nest of Halictus parallelus Say, suggesting it is one of its hosts.

Distribution in Canada: Smith 1853 [North America - Trenton Falls; Hudson's Bay [ON]; Nova Scotia; Arctic America, south of Lake Winnipeg - presumably some of these could refer to H. rubicundus based on the location and synonymy of H. lerouxii]; Walker 1871 [NS]; Brodie and White 1883 [Canada]; Metcalfe 1894 [ON]; Knerer and Atwood 1962 [ON]; Patenaude 2007 [MB]; Sheffield et al. [MB]; Pindar 2014 [ON]; Gibbs et al. 2023 [MB].


Blüthgen P (1925) Beiträge zur Synonymie der Bienengattung Halictus Latr. IV. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift (Berlin) 1925: 385-419.

Cresson ET (1872) Hymenoptera Texana. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 4: 153-292.

Dalla Torre CG (1896) Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Volume X: Apidae (Anthophila). Engelmann, Leipzig, 644 pp.

Knerer G, Atwood CE (1962) An annotated check list of the non-parasitic Halictidae (Hymenoptera) of Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 92: 160-176.

Say T (1837) Descriptions of new species of North American Hymenoptera, and observations on some already described. Boston Journal of Natural History 1: 361-416.

Sheffield CS, Frier SD, Dumesh D (2014) The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) of the Prairies Ecozone, with comparisons to other grasslands of Canada. In: Giberson DJ, Cárcamo HA (Eds) Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 4): Biodiversity and Systematics Part 2. 4. Biological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 479 pp. [ISBN 978-0-9689321-7-9].

Smith F (1853) Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London, 198 pp.

Brodie W, White JE (1883) Label list of insects of the Dominion of Canada. Natural History Society of Toronto. C. Blackett Robinson, Toronto.

Gibbs J, Hanuschuk E, Miller R, Dubois M, Martini M, Robinson S, Nakagawa P, Sheffield CS, Onuferko T (2023) A checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Manitoba, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 155: E3.

Patenaude A (2007) Diversity, composition, and seasonality of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in a northern mixed-grass prairie preserve. Master’s thesis. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Robertson C (1918) Some genera of bees (Hym.). Entomological News 29: 91-92.

Packard AS (1868) The home of the bees (concluded). The American Naturalist 1(11): 596-606.

Metcalfe W (1894) The bee-eating habit of Phymota erosa. Biological Review of Ontario 1(4): 107-109.

Graenicher S (1903b) Some observations of the life history and habits of parasitic bees. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society 3: 153-167.

Smith F (1857) Notes and observations of the Aculeate Hymenoptera. The Entomologist;s Annual. 1857: 27-38.

Packard AS (1897) Notes on the transformations of the higher Hymenoptera. II. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 5: 77-87.

Cockerell TDA (1899b) Notes on American bees. The Entomologist 32: 128-129.

Walker F (1871) Nova Scotian Hymenoptera. The Canadian Entomologist 3(10): 197.

Packard AS (1868b) A Guide to the Study of Insects, and a Treatise on Those Injurious and Beneficial to Crops: for the Use of Colleges, Farm-schools, and Agriculturists. Press of the Essex Institiude, Salem. 322 pp.

Smith F (1855b) Catalogue of British Hymenoptera in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Apidae–Bees. Trustees of the British Museum, London, 248 pp, pls. i-x.

Cockerell TDA (1933) The bees of Australia. The Australian Zoologist 7: 291-324.

Rayment T (1930) Notes on a collection of bees from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 16: 45-56.

Sociality: Presumed Eusocial
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Polylectic
Wintering Stage: Mated Female

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Melilotus sp., Solidago sp., Potentilla sp., Rhus sp., Rubus sp.

Distribution: Manitoba, Ontario
Ecozone: Mixwood Plains, Prairie