Scientific Name: Epeolus compactus Cresson, 1878

Common Name: Compact Cellophane-cuckoo Bee


Epeolus compactus Cresson, 1878: 89 [♀,♂‚]

     Lectotype ♀ [designated by Cresson 1916: 115]. USA, Texas, by G.W. Belfrage [ANSP no. 2227].

Epeolus crucis Cockerell, 1904: 39 [♀] [synonymy by Onuferko 2018: 65]

     Holotype ♀. USA, New Mexico, Las Cruces, by C.H.T. Townsend [USNM no. 534043].

Epeolus hitei Cockerell, 1908: 60 [♀] [synonymy by Onuferko 2017: 30; originally recognized by Brumley 1965: 40]

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, Boulder County, Copeland Park, 6 September 1907, by G.M. Hite [USNM no. 534045].

Triepeolus gabrielis Cockerell, 1910: 26 [♂‚] [synonymy by Onuferko 2017: 30; originally recognized by Brumley 1965: 40]

     Holotype ♂‚. USA, California, San Gabriel Mountains (near Pasadena), 15 July 1909, by F. Grinnell, Jr. [USNM no. 534044].

Epeolus geminatus Cockerell and Sandhouse, 1924: 315 [♀] [synonymy of T. gabrielis Cockerell by Cockerell 1935].

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, San Bernardino County, Mill Creek Canyon, 12 September 1923, by E.P. Van Duzee [CAS no. 01610].


Species Notes

Onuferko (1917) incorrectly records the year of publication of Triepeolus gabrielis Cockerell as 1909. Cockerell (1935: 54) originally synonymized E. geminatus Cockerell and Sandhouse under E. gabrielis (Cockerell), so the new synonymy of Onuferko (2017: 30) was not required.

The DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN) for this species is BOLD:ACU6228.



Torchio and Burdick (1988) indicate that this species is a nest parasite of Colletes kincaidii Cockerell.


Distribution in Canada

Onuferko (2017) recorded this species occurring in British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan; more recently from Manitoba (Onuferko 2018).



Brumley RL (1965) A Revision of the Bee Genus Epeolus Latreille of Western America North of Mexico. M.S. thesis. Logan, Utah: Utah State University. iii + 92 pp.

Cockerell TDA (1904) II.—Some parasitic bees. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7 13(73): 33–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930409487052

Cockerell TDA (1908) New American bees.—VI. Entomologist 41: 59–61.

Cockerell TDA (1910) IV.—Descriptions and records of bees.—XXIV. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8 5(25): 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222931008692722

Cockerell TDA (1935) Some California bees. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 11(2): 49-54.

Cockerell TDA, Sandhouse G (1924) Parasitic bees (Epeolinae and Melectinae) in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 13: 305–324

Cresson ET (1878) Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 7: 61–136. doi: 10.2307/25076368

Cresson ET (1916) The Cresson types of Hymenoptera. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 1: 1–141.

Onuferko TM (2017) Cleptoparasitic bees of the genus Epeolus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 30: March 30, 2017. doi:10.3752/cjai.2017.30

Onuferko TM (2018) A revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epeolus Latreille for Nearctic species, north of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Apidae). ZooKeys 755: 1–185. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.755.23939

Torchio PF, Burdick DJ (1988) Comparative notes on the biology and development of Epeolus compactus Cresson, a cleptoparasite of Colletes kincaidii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae, Colletidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81(4): 626–636.https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/81.4.626

Sociality: Parasitic
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Not Applicable
Wintering Stage: Mature Larva

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Melilotus officinalis, Eriogonum umbellatum

Distribution: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
Ecozone: Boreal Shield, Prairie, Western Interior Basin

Distribution Map