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Dufourea monardae (Viereck, 1924)


Scientific Name: Dufourea monardae (Viereck, 1924)

Common Name: Beebalm Shortface Bee


Halictoides Nova-angliae Graenicher, 1910: 104. Misidentified, not Halictoides novaeangliae (Robertson, 1897).

Conohalictoides monardae Viereck, 1924: 14 [♀, ♂].

     Types ♂.USA, Wisconsin, Wausau, 7 August 1910, by Graenicher [Milwaukee Public Museum no. 47335].


Taxonomic notes: Graenicher (1910) had questioned Lovell’s (presumably Lovell and Cockerell 1906: 112) assertion that Dufourea novaeangliae (Robertson, 1897) was an oligolege of Pontederia cordata Linnaeus (Pontederiaceae) after he misidentified specimens collected on Monarda fistulosa Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) in Wisconsin. When Viereck (1924: 14) examined Graenicher’s material, he proposed the name Conohalictoides monardae Viereck, 1924, largely due to differences in floral host records between these specimens and Dufourea novaeangliae, though he also noted differences in ♂ morphology; he felt the ♀s were indistinguishable. Mitchell (1960: 516) subsequently noted differences in wing venation between females of the two species; Dumesh and Sheffield (2012: 5) also noted differences in the shape of the mid basitarsus, and mouthparts, particularly the stipes, prementum and first segment of labial palpus, all with numerous suberect bristles on D. novaeangliae, but not D. monardae

DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN): BOLD:AAL9824

BiologyDufourea monardae (Viereck, 1924) is an oligolege of Monarda fistulosa Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) (Viereck 1924; Mitchell 1960; Bouseman 1976; Moldenke 1979; Lincoln 1981; Dumesh and Sheffield 2012; Gibbs et al. 2014; Fowler 2016).

Distribution in Canada: Sugar et al. 1999 [ON]; Richards et al. 2011 [ON] ; Dumesh and Sheffield 2012 [ON]; Stegman 2022 [ON].


Dumesh S, Sheffield CS (2012) Bees of the genus Dufourea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Rophitinae) of Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 20: 1-36.

Gibbs J, Dumesh S, Griswold TL (2014) Bees of the genera Dufourea and Dieunomia of Michigan (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae), with a key to the Dufourea of the eastern United States. Journal of Melittology 29: 1-15.

Mitchell TB (1960) Bees of the Eastern United States. Volume 1. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 141: 1-538.

Richards MH, Rutgers-Kelly A, Gibbs J, Vickruck JL, Rehan SM, Sheffield CS (2011) Bee diversity in naturalizing patches of Carolinian grasslands in southern Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 143(3): 279-299.

Viereck HL (1924) The identity of Conohalictoides noveangliae Robertson. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 26(1): 14-15.

Sugar A, Finnamore A, Goulet H, Cumming J, Kerr JT, De Giusti M, Packer L (1999) A preliminary survey of symphytan and aculeate Hymenoptera from oak savannahs in southern Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 129: 9-18.

Lincoln PG (1981) Phylogeny, Host Plant Relations and Speciation in Genus Dufourea (Hymenoptera; Apoidea). Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz. 307 pp.

Graenicher S (1910) Wisconsin bees ̶ new and little-known species. The Canadian Entomologist 42(4): 101-104.

Stegman NM (2022) Temporal and landscape influences on the bee community assemblage of the McMaster Research and Conservation Corridor. MSc Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, xvi + 123 pp.

Fowler J (2016) Specialist bees of the Northeast: host plants and habitat conservation.  Northeastern Naturalist 23(2): 305-320.

Lovell JH, Cockerell TDA (1906) Notes on the bees of southern Maine: Anthophoridae, Halictoididae, Macropidae and Panurgidae. Psyche 13(5): 109-113.

Moldenke AR (1979) Host-plant coevolution and the diversity of bees in relation to the flora of North America. Phytologia 43: 357-419.

Sociality: Solitary
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Narrow Oligolecty
Wintering Stage: Mature Larva

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Monarda fistulosa var. mollis, Monarda sp., Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia

Distribution: Ontario
Ecozone: Mixwood Plains

Distribution Map