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Anthophora urbana Cresson, 1878


Scientific Name: Anthophora urbana Cresson, 1878

Common Name: Urbane Digger Bee


Anthophora urbana Cresson, 1878: 188 [♀,♂‚]

     Synthpes ♀,♂‚. USA, Colorado, Utah, California [ANSP]

Podalirius alamosanus Cockerell, 1896: 195 [♀]

     Holotype ♀. USA, New Mexico, Cañada Alamosa, 18 June [no year provided], by C.H.T. Townsend []

Anthophora catalinae Cockerell, 1901: 297 [♀]

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, Catalina Island, August 1901, by W.P. Cockerell []

Anthophora nebracensis Swenk, 1909: 390 [♀]

     Holotype ♀. USA, Nebraska, Sioux County, Warbonnet Canyon, 23 July 1901, by M.A. Carriker, on Monarda fistulosa [University of Nebraska State Museum]

Anthophora leucostomella Cockerell, 1923: 80 [♂‚]

     Holotype ♂‚. MEXICO, Gulf of California, Angel de la Guardia Island, Puerto Refugio, 1 May 1921, by E.P. Van Duzee [CAS no. 937]

Anthophora catalinae clementina Cockerell, 1939: 430 [♀]

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, San Clemente Island, Wilson s Cove, 17-21 June 1938, by T.D.A. Cockerell, J.T. Scott, on Hemizonia clementina, Convolvulus macrostegius (males), and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum [CAS no. 6650]

Anthophora nicolai Cockerell 1939: 428 [♀]

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, San Nicolas Island, 6,7, and 9 July 1938, by T.D.A. Cockerell, on Abronia maritima and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum [CAS no. 6651]


Species Notes

The DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN) for this species is BOLD:AAO9898.



Nesting biology, immature development and parasitisim by the cleptoparasite Xeromelecta california (Cresson) were studied by Torchio and Trostle (1986) and Mayer and Johansen (1976). The species nests gregariously both horizontally in the ground and in vertical banks (Mayer and Johansen 1976), but does not construct turrets or tumuli at the nest entrance (Linsley et al. 1952; Mayer and Johansen 1976). This species may have two generations per year in some parts of its range (Mayer and Johansen 1976).



Cockerell TDA (1896) New bees of the genera Xenoglossa and Podalirius (Anthophora). The Canadian Entomologist 28(8): 191-197.

Cockerell TDA (1901) New bees of the subfamily Anthophorinae from southern California. The Canadian Entomologist 33(11): 297-298.

Cockerell TDA (1923) Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Gulf of California in 1921. The bees (I). Proceedings of the California Academy of Scientes 12(7): 73-103.

Cockerell TDA (1939) The bees of the southern California Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 23(28): 427-436.

Cresson ET (1878) Descriptions of new species of North American bees. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 30: 181-221.

Linsley EC, MacSwain JW, Smith RF (1952) The bionomics of Diadasia consociata Timberlake and some biological relationships of emphorine and anthophorine bees. Universityof California Publications in Entomology 9: 267-290.

Mayer DF, Johansen CA (1976) Biological observations on Anthophora urbana urbana Cresson (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 52(2): 120-125.

Swenk MH (1909) Three new bees of the genus Anthophora. Entomological News 20: 390-391.

Torchio PF, Trostle GE (1986) Biological notes on Anthophora urbana urbana and its parasite, Xeromelecta californica (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae), including descriptions of late embryogenesis and hatching. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79(3): 434–447.

Sociality: Solitary
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Polylectic
Wintering Stage: Mature Larva

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Not Available

Distribution: British Columbia
Ecozone: Pacific Maritime, Western Interior Basin

female; lateral view
female; lateral view
male; lateral view
male; lateral view