Species

Scientific Name: Anthidium atrifrons Cresson, 1868

Common Name: Anthidium atrifrons

Taxonomy

Anthidium atrifrons Cresson, 1868: 387 [♀]

     Lectotype ♀ [desingated by Cresson 1916: 112]. USA, New Mexico [ANSP no. 2726]. 

Anthidium atriventre Cresson, 1878: 111 [] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Lectotype ♀ [designated by Cresson 1916: 112]. USA, California, by H. Edwards [ANSP no. 2392] 

Anthidium saxorum Cockerell, 1904a: 57 [♂] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, California, Rock Creek, by Dr. Davidson [AMNH]

Anthidium (emarginatum Say var.?) Titusi Cockerell, 1904a: 58 [♂] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, Colorado, Fort Collins, 13 June 1900, by E.S.G. Titus [AMNH].

Anthidium bernardinum var. aridum Cockerell, 1904a: 58 [♂] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, California, Rock Creek, by Dr. Davidson [AMNH].

Anthidium collectum var. ultrapictum Cockerell, 1904b: 73 [♂] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, California, Tehachapi, by Dr. Davidson [AMNH]

Anthidium fresnoense Cockerell, 1925: 347 [♀] [synonymy with A. atriventre titusi Cockerell by P.H. Timberlake, in Michener 1951: 1139; synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, Fresno County, Huntington Lake, 7000 ft., 12 July 1919, by E.P. Van Duzee [CAS no. 1729].

Anthidium angulatum Cockerell, 1925: 357 [♂] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, California, Fresno County, Huntington Lake, 7000 ft., 7 July 1919, by E.P. Van Duzee [CAS no. 1737].

Anthidium hamatum Cockerell, 1925: 358 [♂] [synonymy of  A. atriventre atriventre Cresson by P.H. Timberlake, in Michener,1951: 1139; synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange    1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, Utah, Mt. Timpanogos, 8 July 1922, by E.P. Van Duzee [CAS no. 1739].

Anthidium spinosum Cockerell, 1925: 359 [♂] [synonymy of A. atriventre atriventre Cresson by P.H. Timberlake, in Michener,1951: 1139; synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, California, Fallen Leaf Lake, 11 July 1915, by E.C. Van Dyke [CAS no. 1740].

Anthidium lucidum Cockerell, 1925: 361 [♂] [synonymy with A. atriventre titusi Cockerell by P.H. Timberlake, in Michener 1951: 1139; synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, California, Fresno County, Huntington Lake, 7000 ft., 20 July 1919, by F.C. Clark [CAS no. 1743].

Anthidium sculleni Schwarz, 1930: 10 [♂] [synonymy of A. emarginatum (Say) by Grigarick & Stange 1968: 21; synonymy of A. atrifrons Cresson by Gonzalez and Griswold 2013: 264]

     Holotype ♂. USA, Oregon, Wallowa Lake, on the Aneroid Lake Trail, 5000 to 6000 feet, on 22 July 1929 [CAS no. 12030].

 

Species Notes

Though treated as synonym of A. emarginatum (Say) by Cresson (1879: 221), Dalla Torre (1896: 459), Swenk (1914: 15), Michener (1951), and Grigarick and Stange (1968), this species was resurrected by Gonzalez and Griswold (2013). Thus many of the synonymies of A. atrifrons above are by Gonzalez and Griswold (2013). The names Anthidium saxorum Cockerell, Anthidium titusi Cockerell, and Anthidium bernardinum var. aridum Cockerell appear in the key in Cockerell (1904a), but the species was not described until the next issue in the series (Cockerell 1904b: 72, 76).

 

Biology

This species, though sympatric with A. emarginatum (Say), typically occurs at higher elevations (Gonzalez and Griswold 2013). It shows a strong preference for Phacelia, but is polylectic (Gonzalez and Griswold 2013; Griswold et al. 2014). Nothing has been reported on its nesting biology (Gonzalez and Griswold 2013), though the absense of a fringe of hairs on the front basitarsis, which when present is used to excavate nests in sandy soils, suggests that it using pre-existing cavities, possibly in the ground. Gonzalez and Griswold (2013) indicated that some of the observations of A. emarginatum (Say) are possibly relevant to this species.

 

Size

♀ body length: 7.5–10 mm; head length: mm; head width: mm; forewing length: 6.3–6.8 mm

♂ body length: 11.5–13.1 mm; head length: mm; head width: mm; forewing length: 7.7–8.9 mm

 

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) in Canada (http://geocat.kew.org/): N/A [known from one site]

Approximate Global Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (http://geocat.kew.org/): 2,165,428 km2

Index of Area of Occupancy (IAO) in Canada (http://geocat.kew.org/): 4 km2

 

Distribution

This species was recorded from southern British Columbia, Canada by Schwarz (1928) from a single female specimen (as A. atriventre Cresson) (see Sheffield and Heron 2019). This occurence was not included by Gonzalez and Griswold (2013) or Gonzalez et al. (2014).

 

References

Cockerell TDA. 1904a. The bees of southern California. III. Southern California Academy of Sciences 3: 56–60.

Cockerell TDA. 1904b. The bees of southern California. IV. Southern California Academy of Sciences 3: 72–76.

Cockerell TDA (1925a). Anthidiine bees in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 14: 345–367.

Cresson ET (1868) Catalogue of a small collection of Hymenoptera made in New Mexico during the summer of 1867. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 1: 375–388.

Cresson ET (1878) Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 7: 61–136. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25076368

Cresson ET (1879) Catalogue of North American Apidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 7: 215–232.

Dalla Torre CG (1896) Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Volume X: Apidae (Anthophila). Engelmann, Leipzig, 644 pp.

Gonzalez VH, Griswold TL (2013) Wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): diversity, host plant associations, phylogeny, and biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 168: 221–425.  https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12017

Grigarick AA, Stange LA (1968) The pollen-collecting bees of the Anthidiini of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 9: 1–113.

Griswold T, Gonzalez VH, Ikerd H (2014) AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere. ZooKeys 408: 31–49. doi:  https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.408.5633 GBIF Key: http://gbrds.gbif.org/browse/agent?uuid=863eed07-c5d8-40ae-baee-23f8d3fa475a

Michener CD (1951) Family Megachilidae. In: Muesebeck CFW, Krombein KV, Townes HK, eds. Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. Vol. 2. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1136–1186.

Schwarz HF (1928) Anthidiinae collected mostly in Canada (Hymenop). The Canadian Entomologist, 60(9): 212–217. doi.org/10.4039/Ent60212-9

Schwarz HF (1930) Anthidiine bees from Oregon with a description of a new species. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 38: 9–14.

Sheffield CS, Heron JM (2019 [2018]) The bees of British Columbia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 115: 44-85. https://journal.entsocbc.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/1001/1097

Swenk MH (1914) I.—Studies of North American bees. II. Family Stelididae. University Studies of the University of Nebraska 14(1): 1-36. 

Sociality: Solitary
Nesting: Cavity Renter
Pollen Specialization: Polylectic
Wintering Stage: Mature Larva

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Phacelia hastata, Senecio sp., Phacelia sp., Cryptantha sp., Heracleum maximum, Chaenactis sp.

Distribution: British Columbia
Ecozone: Western Interior Basin

Distribution Map