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Andrena milwaukeensis Graenicher, 1903


Scientific Name: Andrena milwaukeensis Graenicher, 1903

Common Name: Milwaukee Digger Bee


Andrena milwaukeensis Graenicher, 1903: 164 [♀, ♂].

     Lectotype ♀ [designated by Cresson (1928: 61)]. USA, Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 3 June 1902, by S. Graenicher [ANSP no. 4019].

Andrena Hitei Cockerell, 1907: 369 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 476]

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, Bouder, 21 May 1906, by G. Hite [P.H. Timberlake Collection].

Andrena jacobaea Cockerell, 1915: 267 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 476]

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, Jimtown, 7 June [no year provided], by T.D.A. Cockerell, on Thermopsis [P.H. Timberlake Collection].


Taxonomic notes: Though LaBerge (1980: 479) indicates a holotype, it is acutally a lectotype that was deisgnated by Cresson (1928: 61) from Graenichers (1903) 13♀, 4♂‚ (including a male with 2-submarginal cells) syntype series; LaBerge (1980: 479) incorrectly records the holotype number of A. milwaukeensis as 4019. 

In the original description of A. jocobaea, Cockerell (1915) indicated a collection data of 7 June; LaBerge (1980) indicates 8 June. LaBerge (1980) also indicated that the holotype was parasitized by at least two Stylops, so its morphology was altered and not typical for this species, though he expressed no doubt on the identification, or synonymy.

DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN): BOLD:AAD3762

Distribution in Canada: Smith 1853 [NS, as Andrena varians (Kirby)?]; Criddle et al. 1924 [QC, NB, NS; MB as A. hitei Cockerell]; Buckell 1949 [BC]; Cockerell 1937iii [AB]; Knerer and Atwood 1964 [ON]; LaBerge 1980 [YT, NT, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS]; Armbruster and Gunn 1989 [AK]; Sheffield et al. 2003, 2009 [NS], 2014 [AB, SK, MB]; Olstaff et al. 2015 [NB]; Normandin et al. 2017 [QC]; Sheffield and Heron 2019 [BC]. BOLD [YT, NT, SK, ON, NS].


Armbruster WS, Guinn DA (1989) The solitary bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of interior and arctic Alaska: flower associations, habitat use, and phenology. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 62(4): 468-483.

Buckell ER (1949) Record of bees from British Columbia (Andrenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 45: 27-30.

Cockerell TDA (1907) Descriptions and records of bees.—XIII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7 19(113): 361-370.

Cockerell TDA (1915) Descriptions and records of bees.—LXV. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8 15(87): 261-269.

Cockerell TDA (1937) The bees of Alberta.—III. The Canadian Entomologist 69(4): 86-89.

Graenicher S (1903) New bees of the genus Andrena. The Canadian Entomologist 35(6): 162-166.

Hurd PD (1979) Superfamily Apoidea. In: Krombein KV, Hurd Jr PD, Smith DR, Burks BD (Eds) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 2735 pp.

Knerer G, Atwood CE (1964) An annotated check list of the genus Andrena in Ontario (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 95: 41-56.

LaBerge WE (1980) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part X. Subgenus Andrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106(4): 395-525.

Normandin É, Vereecken NJ, Buddle CM, Fournier V (2017) Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings. PeerJ 5: e3051.

Sheffield CS, Frier SD, Dumesh D (2014) The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) of the Prairies Ecozone, with comparisons to other grasslands of Canada. In: Giberson DJ, Cárcamo HA (Eds) Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 4): Biodiversity and Systematics Part 2. 4. Biological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 479 pp. [ISBN 978-0-9689321-7-9].

Sheffield CS, Hebert PD, Kevan PG, Packer L (2009) DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies. Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 196-207.

Sheffield CS, Kevan PG, Smith RF, Rigby SM, Rogers RE (2003) Bee species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with new records and notes on bionomics and floral relations (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76(2): 357-384.

Smith F (1853) Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London, 198 pp.

Gibbs J, Hanuschuk E, Miller R, Dubois M, Martini M, Robinson S, Nakagawa P, Sheffield CS, Onuferko T (2023) A checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Manitoba, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 155: E3.

Sheffield CS, Heron JM (2019) The bees of British Columbia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 115: 44-85.

Criddle N, Curran CH, Viereck HL, Buckell ER (1924) The entomological record, 1923. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 54: 87-102.

Cresson ET (1928) The types of Hymenoptera in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia other than those of Ezra T. Cresson. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 5: 1-90.

Olstaff DP, Ascher JS, Javorek S, Mosseler A (2015) New records of Andrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) in New Brunswick, Canada. Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society 11: 5-8.

Sociality: Solitary
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Polylectic
Wintering Stage: Adult

Crop Preference: Malus pumila, Prunus serotina
Non Crop Preference: Ceanothus sp., Astragalus sp., Melilotus sp., Salix sp., Symphoricarpos sp., Vaccinium angustifolium, Viburnum sp., Vaccinium sp., Prunus sp., Rosa sp., Rubus sp., Amelanchier sp., Philadelphus sp., Crataegus sp., Cornus sp., Prunus virginiana, Prunus americana, Geranium sp., Prunus virginiana var. demissa, Ribes sp., Taraxacum officinale, Barbarea vulgaris, Rosa arkansana, Cardamine sp., Acer sp., Angelica atropurpurea, Berberis sp., Berberis thunbergii, Euphorbia cyparissias, Euphorbia esula, Fragaria virginiana, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Kalmia angustifolia, Rubus occidentalis, Thermopsis sp., Viburnum lentago, Zizia aurea

Distribution: Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon
Ecozone: Atlantic Maritime, Boreal Cordillera, Boreal Plains, Boreal Shield, Hudson Plains, Mixwood Plains, Pacific Maritime, Prairie, Taiga Cordillera, Taiga Plains, Taiga Shield, Western Interior Basin

female; lateral view
female; lateral view