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Andrena frigida Smith, 1853


Scientific Name: Andrena frigida Smith, 1853

Common Name: Frigid Miner Bee


*Andrena frigida Smith, 1853: 115 [♀].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Nova Scotia [BMNH no. 17.a.1374].

*Andrena hirticeps Smith, 1853: 115 [♂]. Preoccupied, not A. hirticeps Eversman, 1852. Synonymy by Mitchell (1960: 105).

     Holotype ♂. CANADA, Hudson's Bay, by H. Barnston [BMNH no. 17.a.1387].

Andrena moesta Smith, 1879: 54 [♀, ♂]. Synonymy by T.B. Mitchell, in Krombein (1958: 214).

     Holotype ♀. North America [CANADA?] [BMNH no. 17.a.1380].

Cilissa albihirta Ashmead, 1890: 5 [♀]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, West Cliff, by T.D.A. Cockerell [USNM no. 21820].

Andrena Cockerelli Graenicher, 1903: 163 [♀, ♂]. Synonymy by T.B. Mitchell, in Krombein (1958: 213).

     Syntypes ♀, ♂. USA, Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 6-30 April [no year provided], on willow [ANSP no. 4073].

Andrena bebbiana Viereck and Cockerell, 1914: 39 [♀]. Synonymy of A. albihirta (Ashmead) by Lanham (1965: 199).

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, Boulder, 30 March [year not provided], by S.A. Rohwer, on Selix [Salix?] bebbiana [CAS no. 15310].

*Andrena (Andrena) bella Viereck, 1924: 22 [♀]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Hototype ♀. CANADA, British Columbia, 29 April 1920, by E.R. Buckell [CNC no. 656].

*Andrena (Andrena) diversicolor Viereck, 1924: 76 [♀]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Banff, 15 April 1911, by N.B. Sanson [CNC no. 658].

*Andrena (Andrena) pallida Viereck, 1924: 78 [♀]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Banff, 19 April [not May] 1910, by N.B. Sanson [CNC no. 683].

*Andrena (Andrena) varia Viereck, 1924: 81 [♀]. Preoccupied, not Andrena varia Perez, 1895. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, British Columbia, Chilcotin, 29 April 1920, by E.R. Buckell [CNC no. 662].

*Andrena (Andrena) nodosa Viereck, 1924: 238 [♀]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Banff, 29 April [not May] 1911, by N.B. Sanson [CNC no. 752].

Andrena (Andrena) stenosoma Viereck, 1925: 135 [♂]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♂. USA, Nevada, by H.K. Morrison [ANSP no. 4130].

*Andrena subarctica Cockerell, 1936: 282 [♀]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Hay River (59° 40’), 5 May 1927, by R.H. Bedford [CNC no. 4168].

Andrena rhodotricha Linsley, 1939: 157 [♀, ♂]. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, Berkeley, 14 March 1939, by G.E. Bohart and J.W. MacSwain [CAS no. 4816].

Andrena (Andrena) hirtignatha Linsley, 1951: 1068. New name for A. hirticeps Smith, 1853. Synonymy by Mitchell (1960: 105).

Andrena (Andrena) variantia Linsley, 1951: 1084. New name for A. varia Viereck, 1924. Synonymy by LaBerge (1980: 409).


Taxonomic Notes: The type locality of A. hirticeps is actually in northern Ontario, 

Though Ashmead (1890: 5) correctly indicated the holotype of his C. albihirta was ♀, one of the labels on the specimen indicates ♂. LaBerge (1980: 413) recorded the catalogue number of C. albihirta incorrectly as USNM No. 2,802.

As indicated by Sarazin (1986: 290), the date of collection for the holotypes of A. pallida and A. nodosa are April, not May.

Lanham (1974) described a melanistic form of A. frigida (as A. albihirta (Ashmead)).

DNA Barcode Index Number (BIN): BOLD:AAD3850 [was BIN BOLD:ACU6219 was synonymized?]

Distribution in Canada: Smith 1853 [NS, type locality, Canada, as A. hirticeps Smith, type locality]; Provancher 1882 [Canada?, as A. hirticeps Smith, as A. bicolor Say, QC], 1888 [QC, as Melissodes obliqua Say, misidentification, see Sheffield and Perron 2014]; Brodie and White 1883 [Canada, and as A. hirticeps Smith]; Viereck et al. 1904d [BC, as A. albihirta Ashmead = A. perarmata Cockerell], 1924a [BC, as A. bella Viereck, type locality, as A. diversicolor Viereck, type locality, as A. pallida Viereck, type locality, as A. varia Viereck, type locality, as A. nodosa Viereck, type locality]; Cockerell 1911 [SK], 1936 [AB, as A. subarctica Cockerell, type locality]; Gibson 1911 [SK, as A. cockerelli Graenicher], 1914 [ON, as A. cockerelli Graenicher], 1917 [NS, as A. cockerelli Graenicher]; Criddle et al. 1924 [ON; BC, AB, MB, ON as A. moesta Smith]; Buckell 1949 [BC, as A. albihirta (Ashmead), as A. bella Viereck]; Knerer and Atwood 1964 [ON]; Hurd 1979 [AK to NS, and BC as A. bella Viereck, AB, as A. diversicolor Viereck, AB as A. nodosa Viereck, AB, as A. pallida Viereck]; LaBerge 1980 [AK, YT, NT, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, LB, NF]; Sheffield et al. 2003, 2009 [NS], 2014 [AB, SK, MB]; Elwell 2012 [BC]; Olstaff et al. 2015 [NB] ; Normandin et al. 2017 [QC]; Sheffield and Heron 2019 [BC]; Hicks and Sheffield 2021 [LB]; Vizza et al. 2021 [ON]; Gibbs et al. 2023 [MB].

Knerer and Atwood (1964) commented on the commoness of this species in Ontario, collecting over 1000 males and females from two flowering willows within three minutes.


Ashmead WH (1890) On the Hymenoptera of Colorado; descriptions of new species, notes, and a list of the species found in the state. Bulletin of the Colorado Biological Association 1: 3-46.

Viereck HL (1924) Prodromus of Andrena, a genus of bees. The Canadian Entomologist 56(1): 19-24.

Viereck HL (1925) A new bee of the genus Andrena, in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 51(2): 135-136.

Graenicher S (1903) New bees of the genus Andrena. The Canadian Entomologist 35(6): 162-166.

LaBerge WE (1980) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part X. Subgenus Andrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106(4): 395-525.

Linsley EG (1939) New species of andrenid bees from California (Hymenoptera). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 15(4): 155-162.

Mitchell TB (1960) Bees of the Eastern United States. Volume 1. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 141: 1-538.

Smith F (1853) Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London, 198 pp.

Smith F (1879) Descriptions of New Species of Hymenoptera in the Collection of the British Museum. Taylor and Francis, London, 240 pp.

Viereck HL, Cockerell TD (1914) New North American bees of the genus Andrena. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 48: 1-58.

Knerer G, Atwood CE (1966) An annotated check list of the genus Andrena in Ontario (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 94: 41-56.

Cockerell TDA (1936) Two new bees from Hay River. The Canadian Entomologist 68(12): 282-283.

Linsley EG (1951) Subfamily Andreninae. In: Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico Synoptic Catalog. Edited by CFW Muesebeck, KV Krombein, and HK Townes. USDA Agricultural Monograph No. 2, Washington, D.C. pp 1052–1086.

Viereck HL (1924) Prodromus of Andrena, a genus of bees. The Canadian Entomologist 56(10): 237-244.

Sociality: Solitary
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Narrow Oligolecty
Wintering Stage: Adult

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Baccharis sp., Salix sp., Heracleum sp., Dalea sp., Crataegus sp., Arctostaphylos sp., Populus tremuloides, Prunus virginiana, Salix bebbiana, Salix brachycarpa, Salix humilis, Salix sericea

Distribution: Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon
Ecozone: Arctic, Atlantic Maritime, Boreal Cordillera, Boreal Plains, Boreal Shield, Hudson Plains, Mixwood Plains, Montane Cordillera, Newfoundland Boreal, Pacific Maritime, Prairie, Taiga Cordillera, Taiga Plains, Taiga Shield, Western Interior Basin

female; lateral view
female; lateral view