female; lateral view

Scientific Name: Andrena frigida Smith, 1853

Common Name: Frigid Miner Bee


*Andrena frigida Smith, 1853: 115 [♀].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Nova Scotia [BMNH no. 17.a.1374]. Photos examined.

*Andrena hirticeps Smith, 1853: 115 [♂] [Preoccupied; not A. hirticeps Eversman, 1852] [synonymy by Mitchell 1960: 105].

     Holotype ♂. CANADA, Hudson's Bay, by H. Barnston [BMNH no. 17.a.1387]. Photos examined.

Andrena moesta Smith, 1879: 54 [♀, ♂] [synonymy by T.B. Mitchell, in Krombein 1958: 214].

     Holotype ♀. North America [CANADA?] [BMNH no. 17.a.1380]. Photos examined.

Cilissa albihirta Ashmead, 1890: 5 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, West Cliff, by T.D.A. Cockerell [USNM no. 21820]. Photos examined.

Andrena Cockerelli Graenicher, 1903: 163 [♀, ♂] [synonymy by T.B. Mitchell, in Krombein 1958: 213].

     Syntypes ♀, ♂. USA, Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 6-30 April [no year provided], on willow [ANSP no. 4073].

Andrena bebbiana Viereck & Cockerell, 1914: 39 [♀] [synonymy of of A. albihirta (Ashmead) by Lanham 1965: 199].

     Holotype ♀. USA, Colorado, Boulder, 30 March [year not provided], by S.A. Rohwer, on Selix [Salix?] bebbiana [CAS no. 15310].

*Andrena (Andrena) bella Viereck, 1924: 22 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Hototype ♀. CANADA, British Columbia, 29 April 1920, by E.R. Buckell [CNC no. 656]. Photos examined.

*Andrena (Andrena) diversicolor Viereck, 1924: 76 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Banff, 15 April 1911, by N.B. Sanson [CNC no. 658]. Photos examined.

*Andrena (Andrena) pallida Viereck, 1924: 78 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Banff, 19 April [not May] 1910, by N.B. Sanson [CNC no. 683]. Photos examined.

*Andrena (Andrena) varia Viereck, 1924: 81 [♀] [Preoccupied, not Andrena varia Perez, 1895] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, British Columbia, Chilcotin, 29 April 1920, by E.R. Buckell [CNC no. 662]. Photos examined.

*Andrena (Andrena) nodosa Viereck, 1924: 238 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Banff, 29 April [not May] 1911, by N.B. Sanson [CNC no. 752]. Photos examined.

Andrena (Andrena) stenosoma Viereck, 1925: 135 [♂] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♂. USA, Nevada, by H.K. Morrison [ANSP no. 4130].

*Andrena subarctica Cockerell, 1936: 282 [♀] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. CANADA, Alberta, Hay River (59° 40’), 5 May 1927, by R.H. Bedford [CNC no. 4168]. Photos examined.

Andrena rhodotricha Linsley, 1939: 157 [♀, ♂] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].

     Holotype ♀. USA, California, Berkeley, 14 March 1939, by G.E. Bohart and J.W. MacSwain [CAS no. 4816].

Andrena (Andrena) hirtignatha Linsley, 1951: 1068 [new name for A. hirticeps Smith, 1853] [synonymy by Mitchell 1960: 105].

Andrena (Andrena) variantia Linsley, 1951: 1084 [new name for A. varia Viereck, 1924] [synonymy by LaBerge 1980: 409].


Taxonomic Notes: Though Ashmead (1890: 5) correctly indicated the holotype of his C. albihirta was ♀, one of the labels on the specimen indicates ♂. LaBerge (1980: 413) recorded the catalogue number of C. albihirta incorrectly as USNM No. 2,802.

As indicated by Sarazin (1986: 290), the date of collection for the holotypes of A. pallida and A. nodosa are April, not May.



Lanham (1974) described a melanistic form of A. frigida (as A. albihirta (Ashmead)) [versus perarmata?]. Knerer and Atwood (1964) commented on the commoness of this species in Ontario, collecting over 1000 males and females from two flowering willows within three minutes.



Ashmead WH (1890) On the Hymenoptera of Colorado; descriptions of new species, notes, and a list of the species found in the state. Bulletin of the Colorado Biological Association 1: 3-46. 

Cockerell TDA (1936) Two new bees from Hay River. The Canadian Entomologist 68(12): 282-283. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent68282-12

Graenicher S (1903) New bees of the genus Andrena. The Canadian Entomologist 35 (6): 162-166. https://doi.org/10.4039/ent35162-6

Knerer G, Atwood CE (1964) An annotated check list of the genus Andrena in Ontario (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 94: 41-56.

LaBerge WE (1980) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part X. Subgenus Andrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106: 395-525. URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25078273 

Linsley EG (1939) New species of andrenid bees from California (Hymenoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 15(4): 155-162.

Linsley EG (1951) Subfamily Andreninae. In Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico Synoptic Catalog. Edited by CFW Muesebeck, KV Krombein, and HK Townes. USDA Agricultural Monograph No. 2, Washington, D.C. pp 1052–1086.

Mitchell TB (1960) Bees of the Eastern United States. Volume 1. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 141: 1-538.

Smith F (1853) Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Trustees of the British Museum, London, 195 pp.

Smith F (1879) Descriptions of New Species of Hymenoptera in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum of Natural History, London.

Viereck HL (1924a) Prodromus of Andrena, a genus of bees. The Canadian Entomologist 56(1): 19-24. https://doi.org/10.4039/ent5619-1

Viereck HL (1924b) Prodromus of Andrena, a genus of bees. The Canadian Entomologist 56(4): 76-81. https://doi.org/10.4039/ent5674

Viereck HL (1924b) Prodromus of Andrena, a genus of bees. The Canadian Entomologist 56(10): 237-244. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/Ent56237-10

Viereck HL (1925) A new bee of the genus Andrena, in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 51(2): 135-136. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25077129

Viereck HL, Cockerell TD (1914) New North American bees of the genus Andrena. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 48: 1-58.

Sociality: Solitary
Nesting: Ground
Pollen Specialization: Narrow Oligolecty
Wintering Stage: Adult

Crop Preference: Not Available
Non Crop Preference: Baccharis sp., Salix sp., Heracleum sp., Dalea sp., Crataegus sp., Arctostaphylos sp., Populus tremuloides, Prunus virginiana, Salix bebbiana, Salix brachycarpa, Salix humilis, Salix sericea

Distribution: Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon
Ecozone: Arctic, Atlantic Maritime, Boreal Cordillera, Boreal Plains, Boreal Shield, Hudson Plains, Mixwood Plains, Montane Cordillera, Newfoundland Boreal, Pacific Maritime, Prairie, Taiga Cordillera, Taiga Plains, Taiga Shield, Western Interior Basin